Male Infertility

Male infertility refers to the inability of a man to impregnate a woman due to
problems with his reproductive system.

It can be caused by a variety of factors

Some common causes of male infertility include:

Low sperm count or poor sperm quality

This is the most common cause of male infertility. Low sperm count means that there is not enough sperm present in the semen to fertilize an egg, while poor sperm quality refers to sperm that are not able to move or have abnormal morphology.


This is a condition in which the veins in the scrotum become enlarged, causing the temperature in the testicles to rise, and reducing sperm quality and production.

Obstructive or non-obstructive azoospermia

This is a condition in which there is either a blockage in the tubes that carry sperm out of the testicles, or the testicles do not produce any sperm.

Hormonal imbalances

Hormonal imbalances, such as low levels of testosterone or high levels of prolactin, can cause infertility in men.

Genetic defects

Genetic defects such as Klinefelter syndrome, Y- chromosome microdeletions, and cystic fibrosis can also cause male infertility.

Environmental factors

Exposure to toxins, such as pesticides, lead, and other chemicals, can affect sperm production and quality.
Treatment for male infertility is determined on the underlying cause. It may include medicine to treat hormonal imbalances, surgery to correct a blockage in the reproductive canal, or assisted reproductive technologies such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF). Quitting smoking, lowering alcohol use, and avoiding pollutants may also assist boost male fertility.

Several treatments for Male Infertility:

Lifestyle changes

Improving lifestyle habits like quitting smoking, reducing alcohol consumption, maintaining a healthy weight, and exercising regularly can help improve fertility.


Certain medications can be prescribed to increase sperm production or improve the quality of the sperm. These medications may include hormones, antibiotics, and antioxidants.


Surgery can be performed to correct any physical abnormalities that may be affecting fertility, such as varicocele, blockages in the reproductive system, or testicular torsion.

Assisted reproductive techniques

In vitro fertilization (IVF), Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and intrauterine insemination (IUI) are some of the assisted reproductive techniques that can help couples conceive, even with low sperm count or quality.

Donor sperm

If all other treatments fail, using donor sperm can be an option for couples who want to conceive.